pacific walrus

MacCracken, J.G. The scientific name of the walrus means "tooth-walker." After fertilization the ovum becomes a blastocyst and remains in a state of suspended development for 3-4 months. The significance of such disturbance to individuals and to populations is not well known, due to great variation in the observed responses to disturbance and a lack of relevant data. Udevitz, M.S., D.M.

[4] Walruses live mostly in shallow waters above the continental shelves, spending significant amounts of their lives on the sea ice looking for benthic bivalve mollusks to eat. The walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) is a large flippered marine mammal with a discontinuous distribution about the North Pole in the Arctic Ocean and subarctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere. Marine Pollution Bulletin: 20(9): 465-468. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), estimated the walrus population to be about 129,000 but with a large confidence interval of 55,000-550,000 animals. The Boone and Crockett Big Game Record book has entries for Atlantic and Pacific walrus. Marine Mammal Science, DOI: 10.1111/mms.12286. [4] They rut from January through April, decreasing their food intake dramatically. Thus, females in good condition and at prime breeding ages may only produce a calf every 3 years.

2009. The first circumpolar report on walrus conservation recommends research into the effects of industrial activities on the Arctic animals. Warburton, J. and D.J. Walrus are an important source of food for local residents, providing meat and blubber. Can. The few management interventions tried met with mixed success and are generally short-lived.

Several place names in Iceland, Greenland and Norway may originate from walrus sites: Hvalfjord, Hvallatrar and Hvalsnes to name some, all being typical walrus breeding grounds. In 2012, a new approach to population estimation using the genetic fingerprint of individual walruses within a mark-recapture framework began testing. The Parody Wiki is a FANDOM Lifestyle Community. Stock assessment reports are used to evaluate the progress of fisheries towards achieving the goal of zero mortality and serious injury to marine mammals. Robards, M., and J. Garlich-Miller. The joint census conducted in 1980 estimated population size at 246,360.

Unpublished report U.S. Estimating the harvest of Pacific walrus, Odobenus rosmarus divergens in Alaska. Bowlby, L. Noonan, and D.M. Garlich-Miller, J.L., Quakenbush, L.T., and Bromaghin, J.F. Annual summary: information collected during the 1993 Spring walrus harvest in Alaska. However, as the calf grows older that behavior wanes increasing the potential for separation during disturbance. Udevitz, A.A. Kochnev, C.V. Jay, A. Lisovsky, A.S. Fischbach, and R.B. Breeding occurs from January to March, peaking in February. Take your favorite fandoms with you and never miss a beat. [50] This population was nearly eradicated by commercial harvest; their current numbers, though difficult to estimate, probably remain below 20,000. Burn. Several hundred can also be found in the Laptev Sea. The most distinctive feature of walruses, both male and female, is their two ivory tusks, which are long upper canine teeth that grow throughout their life. Local communities have taken important measures, in collaboration with FWS, to limit the potential for such disturbance. descended from a single ancestor, or diphyletic, recent genetic evidence suggests all three descended from a caniform ancestor most closely related to modern bears. As the Bering Sea pack ice begins to break up and melt in spring walruses begin to move northward and their distribution becomes less clumped. [21], While this was not true of all extinct walruses,[22] the most prominent feature of the living species is its long tusks. At birth calves of both sexes weigh anywhere from 100 to 150 lbs and are approximately 4.5 feet in length. Young walruses are deep brown and grow paler and more cinnamon-colored as they age. Prey are manipulated by the lips and grasped with the aid of roughly textured gums, rather than by the teeth. Alaska Native hunters from St. Lawrence Island have described emaciated walruses after they were stuck in heavy ice for several weeks. The prolonged lactation period allows walrus calves to achieve an advanced developmental state prior to weaning, which ultimately leaves them well equipped to forage and escape predators. Age, sex, and reproductive status of Pacific walrus harvested in the Bering Strait region, 1994-1996. Serious injury and death can also result from intra-specific interactions, mainly involving strikes with tusks and trampling at haulouts (see above). Walruses occasionally consume fish. Udevitz, S.G. Speckman, and R.B. These are elongated canines, which are present in both male and female walruses and can reach a length of 1 m (3 ft 3 in) and weigh up to 5.4 kg (12 lb). The Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) is a subspecies of walrus that lives in the Bering and Chukchi seas where they haul out on sea ice and along the mainland coast and islands of Russia and Alaska. The mothers nurse for over a year before weaning, but the young can spend up to five years with the mothers. Although Carroll accurately portrays the biological walrus's appetite for bivalve mollusks, oysters, primarily nearshore and intertidal inhabitants, these organisms in fact comprise an insignificant portion of its diet in captivity. Workshop on assessing Pacific walrus population attributes from coastal haul-outs. WWF has created maps and posters for Canadian ships in the Arctic to help mariners identify and avoid marine mammals. Implantation occurs in June or July and the fetus resumes development for approximately eleven months. Overall, walrus population growth rates tend to be slow, with mature females producing a calf on average every 3 years. In late spring and summer, for example, several hundred thousand Pacific walruses migrate from the Bering Sea into the Chukchi Sea through the relatively narrow Bering Strait. Their only natural predators include polar bears, killer whales, and humans. Trends in age Structure and Productivity of Pacific Walruses Harvested in the Bering Strait Region of Alaska, 1952–2002. Disturbance from a variety of human activities in the Arctic, such as shipping and oil and gas development, can also have negative impacts on walruses. With tusks like an elephant and the body of an overgrown seal, the Pacific walrus is one blubbery beast. Polar Biology 36:291-298. Although capable of diving deeper, Pacific walruses for the most part are found in waters 300 ft. deep or less, possibly because of higher productivity of their benthic foods in the shallower water. Walruses also have hundreds of short, strong, highly sensitive whiskers that they use to search the seafloor for their food. 2002 Walrus Harvest Monitor Project Annual Summary. The rapid loss of sea ice due to global warming greatly threatens the survival of the Pacific walrus. Walrus do not use their tusks for feeding. Olaus Magnus, who depicted the walrus in the Carta Marina in 1539, first referred to the walrus as the ros marus, probably a Latinization of morž, and this was adopted by Linnaeus in his binomial nomenclature. This and its lack of orbital roof allow it to protrude its eyes and see in both a frontal and dorsal direction. In October the pack ice begins to develop in the Chukchi Sea, and large herds begin to move southward. Walruses maintain such a high body weight because of the blubber stored underneath their skin. Their large front flippers each has five digits. (pdf) Wildlife Society Bulletin. U.S.

USFWS R7/MMM Technical Report 00-2, 92 pp.

Walruses depend on hauling out to complete their molt and grow new hair, to whelp, to nurse young, and just to rest. Fish & Wildlife Service Technical Report MMM 94; 23pp. Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska. Large males can weigh more than 3300 pounds and be more than 10 feet long. The archaic English word for walrus—morse—is widely thought to have come from the Slavic languages,[9] which in turn borrowed it from Finno-Ugric languages. Bering, Chukchi, Laptev, and East Siberian Seas. However, vision in this species appears to be more suited for short-range. Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska. In addition to their distinctive tusks, walrus are also impressive on account of their size. Adapting to climate change: a community workshop on the conservation and management of walruses on the Chukchi Sea coast. This block is broken or missing. The size of the Pacific walrus population is uncertain. Snyder. Dickerson, L., D. Burn, J. Garlich-Miller, T. Fischbach, S. Rice, J. Boucher and B. Howard.

Economic monitoring and analysis of the 1992 and 1993 summer walrus hunts in Northern Foxe Basin, Northwest Territories. To receive a copy of a publication or report listed here, please contact: [4] They are not particularly deep divers compared to other pinnipeds; their deepest recorded dives are around 80 m (260 ft).

Barrow in the east, and between the Bering Strait and Wrangel Island in the west. Chernook, D.M. [66][67], Due to its great size and tusks, the walrus has only two natural predators: the killer whale (orca) and the polar bear. Walrus do not have external ear flaps. [15] From there, it presumably recolonized the North Pacific Ocean during high glaciation periods in the Pleistocene via the Central American Seaway. A sizable group of males, however, remains behind in the Bristol Bay area during the summer months, hauling out in several spots around the region. Proceedings of a workshop concerning walrus survey methods. Among arctic marine mammal species, walruses have some of the highest concentrations of harmful algal bloom toxins.

Walrus migrate with the moving ice floes, but never venture far from the coast as they feed in shallow waters. For example, in a Chukchi version of the widespread myth of the Raven, in which Raven recovers the sun and the moon from an evil spirit by seducing his daughter, the angry father throws the daughter from a high cliff and, as she drops into the water, she turns into a walrus – possibly the original walrus. It is a keystone species in Arctic marine ecosystems.


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